The Cylex® ImmuKnow® assay uses only 1 ml blood to provide rapid assessment of global immune function in immunocompromised patients. A unique feature of the ImmunKnow® assay is that it uses whole blood incubation to measure T cell responses under conditions of continuous exposure to the combination of immunosuppressive drugs in peripheral blood. In contrast, conventional assays usually require relatively large amounts of blood and many days of incubation of T lymphocytes after removing the cells from immunosuppressive drugs.
The ImmuKnow® assay defines three immunological response zones: strong, moderate and weak. These zones can guide physicians in patient management. The assay can be used in a variety of applications, including transplantation, management of infectious diseases (e.g. HIV, HCV), autoimmunity, cancer, as well as vaccine and drug development. For blood marrow transplantation, the assay is reported to determine risks for GvHD and infection to aid physicians in tailoring GvHD and infection prophylaxis.
ImmuKnow® detects intracellular ATP synthesis in stimulated CD4+ cells selected from whole blood by monoclonal antibody coated magnetic beads. The amount of ATP produced reflects global T cell function. The measurement of CD4+ activation reflects cellular immunity because the CD4+ lymphocytes orchestrate cell-mediated immunity through immunoregulatory signaling.
Kowalski R, Post D. Assessing relative risks of infection and rejection: a meta-analysis using immune function assay. Transplantation. 2006;5:663-668.
Hooper E, Hawkins DM, Kowalski RJ, Post DR, Britz JA, Brooks KC, Turman MA. Establishing pediatric immune response zones using the Cylex® ImmuKnow® assay. Clinical Transplantation. 2005;Dec;19(6):834-839.
Kowalski R, Post D, Schneider MC, Britz JA, Thomas J, Deierhoi M, Lobashevsky A, Redfield R, Schweitzer E, Heredia A, Reardon E, Davis C, Bentlejewski C, Fung J, Shapiro R, Zeevi A. Immune cell function testing: an adjunct to therapeutic drug monitoring in transplant patient management. Clinical Transplantation. 2003;17:77-88.